Left Wing Extremism Division

This Division was created w.e.f. October 19, 2006 in the Ministry to effectively address the LWE problem from development and security angles. The Division monitors the LWE situation and counter-measures being taken by the affected States. The Division reviews implementation of various development schemes of Ministries/Departments of Govt. of India in the LWE affected areas.

About the Division

This Division was created w.e.f. October 19, 2006 in the Ministry to effectively address the Left Wing Extremist insurgency in a holistic manner. The LWE Division implements security related schemes aimed at capacity building in the LWE affected States. The Division also monitors the LWE situation and counter-measures being taken by the affected States. The LWE Division coordinates the implementation of various development schemes of the Ministries/Departments of Govt. of India in LWE affected States. The States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh are considered LWE affected, although in varying degrees.

Role and Functions of the Division

  • Capacity building of States to combat LWE though schemes of Ministry of Home Affairs like Security Related Expenditure (SRE) scheme,Special Infrastructure Scheme,Special Central Assistance etc.
  • Deployment of Central Armed Police Forces(CAPFs) in LWE affected States.
  • Providing funds to the CAPFs for strengthening of infrastructure/Helicopters/civic action etc.
  • Reviewing the security situation in the LWE affected States and issuing advisories to the State Governments concerned.
  • Providing assistance to State Governments for initiatives to combat LWE in the form of funds for items of emergent nature.
  • Coordinating implementation of LWE related Schemes of other Central Ministries for LWE affected Districts.

Organisational Chart

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1Organisational Chart. Download (23.16 KB) pdf

Background

  • A number of Left Wing Extremist outfits have been operating in certain remote and poorly connected pockets of the country for a few decades now. In a significant development in 2004, the People’s War (PW), then operating in Andhra Pradesh, and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI), then operating in Bihar and adjoining areas, merged to form the CPI (Maoist) Party. The CPI (Maoist) Party, is the major Left Wing Extremist outfit responsible for majority of incidents of violence and killing of civilians and security forces and has been included in the Schedule of Terrorist Organisations along with all its formations and front organisations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. The CPI (Maoist) philosophy of armed insurgency to overthrow the Government is unacceptable under the Indian Constitution and the founding principles of the Indian State. The Government has given a call to the Left Wing Extremists to abjure violence and come for talks. This plea has been rejected by them, since they believe in violence as the means to capture State power. This has resulted in a spiraling cycle of violence in some parts of India. The poor and the marginalised sections like the tribals are bearing the brunt of this violence. Many well-meaning liberal intellectuals fall prey to the Maoist propaganda without understanding the true nature of Maoist insurgency doctrine which glorifies violence and believes in adopting the military line to capture power. Between 2010 to 2017 (upto 15.05.2017) around 2457 civilians and 930 security force personnel have been killed by the Maoists in different parts of India. The majority of the civilians killed are tribal’s, often branded as ‘Police informers’ before being brutally tortured and killed. In fact, the tribal and the economically underprivileged sections, whose cause the Maoists claim to espouse, have been the biggest victims of the so called ‘protracted peoples war’ of the CPI (Maoist) against the Indian state.

The dynamics of Maoist insurgency:

  • Some sections of the society, especially the younger generation, have romantic illusions about the Maoists, arising out of an incomplete understanding of their ideology. The central theme of Maoist ideology is violence. The Maoist insurgency doctrine glorifies violence as the primary means to overwhelm the existing socio-economic and political structures. The Peoples Liberation Guerilla Army (PLGA), the armed wing of CPI (Maoist), has been created with this purpose in mind. In the first stage of the insurgency, the PLGA resorts to guerrilla warfare, which primarily aims at creating a vacuum at the grass-roots level of the existing governance structures. This is achieved by killing lower-level government officials, police-personnel of the local police stations, the workers of mainstream political parties and the peoples representatives of the Panchayati Raj system. After creating a political and governance vacuum, they coerce the local population to join the movement. A strident propaganda is also carried out against the purported and real inadequacies of the existing state structure.
  • In areas under Maoist domination, the absence of governance becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy since the delivery systems are extinguished through killings and intimidation. This is the first step in the strategy of the Maoists to seek to control the countryside. In the meanwhile, many Front Organisations are created to facilitate mass-mobilisation in semi-urban and urban areas through ostensibly democratic means. Most of the Front Organisations are led by well-educated intellectuals with firm belief in the Maoist insurgency doctrine. These ideologues function as masks to cover the violent nature of the CPI (Maoist) ideology. They also form propaganda/disinformation machinery of the party.
  • They stridently take up issues like ‘displacement of tribals’, ‘corporate exploitation’, ‘human rights violations’ by security forces etc. and often make fantastic claims in this regard which get reported even by the mainstream media. The Front Organisations also skilfully use state structures and legal processes to further the Maoist agenda and weaken the enforcement regime. The important functions of these Organisations include recruitment of ‘professional revolutionaries’, raising funds for the insurgency, creating urban shelters for underground cadres, providing legal assistance to arrested cadres and mass- mobilisation by agitating over issues of relevance/ convenience. The Front Organisations aim to provide short-term democratic subterfuge to cover-up the totalitarian and oppressive nature of the Maoist ideology. The CPI (Maoist) also have a strategic game-plan to create a ‘United Front’ with all like-minded insurgent / terrorist outfits in India. It needs to be remembered that many of these outfits are supported by external forces inimical to India and the CPI (Maoist) consider such alliances as strategic assets..
  • In a nutshell, the CPI (Maoist), the main LWE outfit in India, aims to overthrow the existing democratic state structure with violence as their primary weapon, and mass mobilization and strategic united fronts as complementary components and plans to usher in so called ‘New Democratic Revolution’ in India.

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA’S APPROACH

  • The Government’s approach is to deal with Left Wing Extremism in a holistic manner, in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights and entitlements of local communities, improvement in governance and public perception management. In dealing with this decades-old problem, it has been felt appropriate, after various high-level deliberations and interactions with the State Governments concerned, that an integrated approach aimed at the relatively more affected areas would deliver results. With this in view, a detailed analysis of the spread and trends in respect of Left Wing Extremist violence has been made and 106 districts in ten States have been taken up for special attention with regard to planning, implementation and monitoring various interventions. However, 'Police' and 'Public Order' being State subjects, action on maintenance of law and order lies primarily in the domain of the State Governments. The Central Government closely monitors the situation and supplements and coordinates their efforts in several ways. These include providing Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA); sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools; modernisation and upgradation of the State Police and their Intelligence apparatus under the Scheme for Modernization of State Police Forces (MPF scheme); re-imbursement of security related expenditure under the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme; providing helicopters for anti-naxal operations, assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence, the Central Police Organisations and the Bureau of Police Research and Development; sharing of Intelligence; facilitating inter-State coordination; assistance in community policing and civic action programmes etc. The underlying philosophy is to enhance the capacity of the State Governments to tackle the Maoist menace in a concerted manner.

MONITORING MECHANISMS

  • The Union Home Minister,the Home Secretary & the Special Secretary/Additional Secretary and a Review Group chaired by the Cabinet Secretary review the LWE situation on a regular basis. Progress of the various schemes is regularly monitored by MHA though meeting and Video Conferencing with the Central Ministries/Departments concerned and State Governments
  • Empowered Committee under Additional Secretary(LWE),constituted on May 26,2015 has conducted number of meeting with different Ministries in 2017 reviewing the progress/Status of various development Schemes/Projects

Recent Reviews

  • The Union Home Minister has convened meeting of Chief Ministers of LWE affected States on February 09,2015 and May 08,2017.A meeting with Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh was held 03/11/2017.
  • The Union Home Minister and the Minister of States (Home) have visited LWE affected States and reviewed the LWE situation.
  • Review Group meeting conducted by the Cabinet Secretary recently on 15/12/2016 and 03/08/2017
  • Meeting are beging conducted by Union Home Secretary with Secretaries of Central Ministries and Chief Secretaries of the LWE affected States and Central Ministries.
  • Numbers of meeting were held in 2017. The latest was held on 02.02.2018

IMPORTANT INITIATIVES FOR LWE AFFECTED STATES

  • In order to holistically address the LWE problem in an effective manner, Government has formulated National Policy and Action Plan adopting multi pronged strategy in the areas of security, development, ensuring rights & entitlement of local communities etc.
  • Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme: This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years till 2020.Under the Security Related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme, the central Govt. reimburses to the State Governments of 10 LWE affected States Security Related Expenditure of 106 districts relating to ex-gratia payment to the family of civilians/security forces killed in LWE violence, training and operational needs of security forces, compensation to Left Wing Extremist cadres who surrendered in accordance with the surrender and rehabilitation policy of the concerned State Government, community policing, Security related infrastructure for village defence committees and publicity materials. There is a substantial increase in annual outlay and new items such as compensation for in cap- citation of Security forces and property damage have been included for the first time in this scheme. The SRE Schemes aims at strengthen of the capacity of the LWE affected States to fight against the LWE problem in an effective manner.
  • Special Central Assistance (SCA) for 35 most LWE affected districts: This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019-20. Main objective of the Scheme is to fill the critical gaps in Public Infrastructure and Services, which are of emergent nature
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS) including construction of 250 Fortified Police Stations in LWE affected states: This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019- 20.The Scheme aims at capacity building of states by strengthening the security apparatus of the States. 250 Fortified Police Stations are also envisaged under the Scheme.
  • Scheme of Fortified Police stations: The Ministry has sanctioned 400 police stations in 10 LWE affected States. A total of 386 of PSs have been completed, work at 14 PSs is under progress.
  • Assistance to Central Agencies for LWE management Scheme:- This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019-20. Under the Scheme assistance is provided to Central Agencies like CAPFs, Indian Air Force for anti LWE Operations where the States have constraints.
  • Civic Action Programme (CAP): This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019-20. CAP in LWE affected areas is being implemented since 2010-11 to bridge the gaps between Security Forces and local people through personal interaction and bring the human face of SFs before the local population. The Scheme has been very successful in achieving its goal. Under the Scheme, funds are released to the CAPFs, deployed in LWE affected areas, for conducting various civic activities in welfare of the local people.
  • Media Plan Scheme: This Scheme has been approved by the Government on 27.09.2017 as a sub scheme of the Umbrella Scheme Modernization of Police Forces for a period of 03 years i.e. from 2017-18 to 2019-20. The Maoists have been misguiding and luring the innocent tribals/local population in LWE affected areas by their so called poor-friendly revolution through petty incentives or by following their coercive strategy. Their false propaganda is targeted against the security forces and the democratic set up. Therefore, the Government is implementing this Scheme in LWE affected areas.
  • Road Requirement Plan-I (RRP-I): This Scheme is being implemented by Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, since 2009 for improving road connectivity in 34 LWE affected districts of 8 States i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh. The scheme envisages construction of 5,422 km road lengths and 08 Critical bridges in LWE affected States, of which 4,523 kms roads and 02 bridges have been completed by 31.12.2017.
  • Road Connectivity Project for LWE affected areas (RRP-II).). The Government approved this scheme on 28.12.2016 for further improving road connectivity in 44 districts of 9 LWE affected States. This Scheme envisages 5412 km roads and 126 bridges at an estimated cost of Rs. 11,725 Crores. Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal Ministry for this project. The roads included under the scheme have been identified by the Ministry of Home Affairs in consultation with the State Governments and the security agencies.
  • LWE Mobile Tower Project: To improve mobile connectivity in the LWE areas, the Government on 20.08.2014 approved installation of mobile towers in LWE affected States, namely: Andhra Pradesh (227), Bihar (184), Chhattisgarh (497), Jharkhand (782), Madhya Pradesh (22), Maharashtra (60), and Odisha (253). The Department of Telecommunication, has been implementing this Scheme. 2329 mobile towers have been installed and the project stands completed.

Conclusion

  • It is the belief of the Government of India that through a holistic approach focussing on development and security related interventions, the LWE problem can be successfully tackled. However, it is clear that the Maoists do not want root causes like underdevelopment to be addressed in a meaningful manner since they resort to targeting school buildings, roads, railways, bridges, health infrastructure, communication facilities etc in a major way. They wish to keep the population in their areas of influence marginalized to perpetuate their outdated ideology. Consequently, the process of development has been set back by decades in many parts of the country under LWE influence. This needs to be recognised by the civil society and the media to build pressure on the Maoists to eschew violence, join the mainstream and recognise the fact that the socio-economic and political dynamics and aspirations of 21st Century India are far removed from the Maoist world-view. Further, an ideology based on violence and annihilation is doomed to fail in a democracy which offers legitimate forums of grievance redressal.

Annexures:

SR-NoTitleDownload/Link
1 Statistics on Left Wing Extermism for the the period from January 1 to April 15, 2018 along with comparative figures for the last yearDownload (27.14 KB) pdf
2Statistics on Left Wing Extremism for the period from January 1 to March 31, 2018 along with comparative figures for the last year.Download (656.41 KB) pdf
3Statistics on left Wing Extremism for the period from January 1 to March 15, 2018 along with comparative figures for the last year.Download (802.12 KB) pdf
4Statistics of LWE violence during 2011 to 2018 (upto 28.02.2018)Download (25.63 KB) PDF
5Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)Download (68.04 KB) pdf
6Statistics on Left Wing Extremism for the period from January 1 to April 30, 2018 along with comparative figures for the last year.Download (825.06 KB) pdf

P.S.: All references to Maoism in this portal is in the context of CPI(Maoist) and other LWE organizations included in the schedule of Terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.